Each person’s outward appearance identifies their specific morphological structure which, in turn, depends on hereditary traits, metabolic-hormonal influences, food habits and environmental factors.
The chronhormorphodiet or Com Diet, considers all these elements in order to indicate a particular diet built upon the specific traits of each single person.
Fat accumulation in different body zones is mainly due to different hormonal prevalence1. The hormones influence fat distribution as well as one’s choice of food. Food, in turn, influences hormonal secretions2. However, it must be taken into account that hormonal secretion varies throughout the day, therefore the intake of certain food at different times of the day has a different effect on fat accumulation3. The COM diet considers the morphology of an individual (apple, pear or chili pepper shape) which corresponds to a specific hormonal prevalence, whose influence on fat distribution can be controlled and partially modified by both qualitative and Chronological choice of food4, thus favouring localized loss of weight. The classification of biotypes in the Chronhromorphodiet links different fat distribution to different hormonal prevalence, thus suggesting the consequent food approaches.
The Chronhormorphodiet identifies three main categories:
Hyperlipogenetic subjects: their upper part of the body is more robust compared to their lower part. Fat is mainly localized above the waistline, on the upper part of the back, stomach and chest. They present the so-called “apple” body structure, and a round face. This shape is due to the prevalence of the corticosuprarenal functionality5 which produces too much cortisol, thus favouring fat increase through secondary insulin stimulation due to hyperglycemia, caused by high cortisol levels6,7. Vice versa, the catabolic action on the proteins of cortisol itself gives a thin structure to the limbs, unless a high androgenic component – with high levels of testosterone – is present. This morphology is more frequent in men, but it is often found in women characterized by abundant breast and narrow hips. Hyperlipogenetic people have a preference for salty, fat food and alcoholic drinks. They tend not to feel the cold and are provided with a lot of energy during the day, they are strong but little flexible.
Hypolipolytic subjects: they are characterized by the typical “pear” shape with clear disproportion between the upper part of the body, which is thin, and the lower part, quite pronounced. This morphology is an almost exclusive feature of women, yet in case of high levels in estrogens it may be found in men8, too. The lower part of the body is strong while the upper part is weak. These subjects have a slow metabolism, with prevalence of the parasympathetic system, which stimulates insulin9. Their thyroidal activity is slow: as a consequence, they have swollen legs and ankles, and their calves are too big. Hypolipolytic subjects have circulatory difficulty10 in lymphatic and venous drainage. This causes high predisposition to cellulite. These subjects are hypothyroid, and hypopituitary. Women are hypergonadal and present high production or low deactivation of estrogens, while men are hypogonadal with scarce production of testosterone11. Moreover, hypolipolytic subjects tend to present a slow system of hepatic detoxification. This is caused by the reduced deactivation of estrogens, which causes scarce metabolisation of T4 in T312, due to a mechanism of estrogen competition at hepatic level, where the T4 metabolization takes place13. These subjects often present a dysfunctional gastrointestinal system (constipation, impermeable intestine syndrome) and must be particularly careful with allergens and food intolerance.
Mixed subjects: they are characterized by an athletic body, small bones, long and lean limbs, high waist and oval face. They accumulate fat homogeneously, keeping their waistline visible, and they have thin calves. The mixed-morphotype subjects are provided with good hormonal balance and it seems they have taken advantage of it by consuming too many sweets and carbohydrates, supported by their good thyroid metabolism. This unbalancing leads to fat and/or cellulite accumulation on hips, abdomen and thighs. Progressive fat accumulation is associated to a parallel increase in TSH and FT3 apart from insulin sensitivity and metabolic parameters. Actually, there is a correlation between the FT3/FT4 ratio and BMI in overweight patients. This may suggest an increased conversion of T4 into T3 in overweight patients14, as a compensation for fat accumulation to increase energy consumption. Despite the high level of TSH, the receptors of this hormone are less expressed in the adipose cells. This causes a decrease in receptors for thyroid hormones, therefore lower effectiveness of those hormones.
The majority of hormones follows circadian rhythms, that is, they are not constantly secreted by the body but follow a specific rhythm during the day15. A typical example is GH, which is mainly secreted during night sleep16.
Even more typical than that is the circadian rhythm of cortisol, which reaches its highest level early in the morning, and is quite high until 4p.m., then it gradually decreases.
Hormones vary during the day, they influence and are influenced by one’s diet. Moreover, they influence fat distribution. It is therefore clear that the manipulation of the proportions and the daily distribution of nutrients will have an effect on fat distribution17.
It is possible to advise food habits for the various morphotypes.
For example, hypolipolytic subjects are advised to consume carbohydrates in the first part of the day and to choose only proteins in the evening. This favours the secretion of GH during the night and stimulates lipolysis.
Hyperlipogenetic subjects tend to eat a lot and to build a lot of fat. Moreover, they generally present high cortisol levels which reach the maximum peak early in the morning and are protracted until early afternoon.
This leads to hyperglycemia (cortisol contributes to this) which, if followed by carbohydrate consumption, causes very high levels of glycaemia with consequent insulin secretion leading to a state of lipogenesis. Moreover, if these subjects have only proteins in the evening, they will experience an increase in adrenalin with states of nervous hyperphagia. In this case it is better to accompany proteins with a low amount of low-glycaemic carbohydrates in the morning, in order to calm cortisol, and to consume carbohydrates to stimulate serotinine and leptine reducing appetite throughout the day18.
Mixed subjects do not have specific hormonal unbalance but only slow thyroid metabolism which can be counterbalanced and rebalanced by letting the thyroid rest, reducing carbohydrates and choosing proteins.
- Boschmann M. et al.,”metagolic and hemodynamic response of adipose tissue to angiotensin II”, Obesity Resarch, 2001;9:486-91.
- Firschein R., The NUtiaceutical Revolution, River Head Books, 1998.
- Moor-Ede M., Sulzman F., Fuller C., The Clocks That Time Us: Physiology of the Circadian Timing System, Cambridge, Harvard university Press, 1982,p.448.
- Todisco M., La Cronodieta, Tecniche Nuove, 1991.
- Talbott S.M., The Corticol Connection Diet, Hunter House,2004.
- Alfonso B., Araki T., Zumoff B., Is There Visceral Adipose Tissue(VAT) Intracellular Hypercortisolism in Human Obesity?, 2013.
- S.B. Abraham, D. Rubino, N. Sinaii, S. Ramsey and L.K. Nieman, Cortisol, Obesity, and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study of Obese Subjects and Review of the Literature, Obesity (2013) 21.
- Farid Saad, Antonio Aversa, Andrea M. Isidori and Louis J. Gooren, Testosterone as Potential Effective Therapy in Treatment of Obesity inMen with Testosterone Deficiency: A Review, Current Diabetes Reviews, 2012, 8, 131-143.
- Hart C.R., Grossman M.K., The Insuline Resistence Diet, McGraw-Hill,2001.
- Goossens G.H. et al.,”Angiotensin II: a major regulator of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in human”, The journal of Physiology, 1mar.2006;571(Pt2)451-60.
- Lunenfeld B, Arver S, Moncada I, Rees DA, Schulte HM. How to help the aging male? Current approaches to hypogonadism in primary care. Aging Male. 2012 Dec;15(4):187-97.
- Michalakis K, Goulis DG, Vazaiou A, Mintziori G, Polymeris A, Abrahamian-Michalakis A., A.Obesity in the ageing man. Metabolism. 2013 Jul 4. pii: S0026-0495(13)00172-8.
- Ren R, Jiang X, Zhang X, Guan Q, Yu C, Li Y, Gao L, Zhang H, Zhao J., Association between thyroid hormones and body fat in euthyroid subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Aug 8.
- Agnihothri RV, Courville AB, Linderman JD, Smith SM, Brychta RY, Remaley A, Chen KY, Simchowitz L, Celi F., Moderate weight loss is sufficient to affect thyroid hormone homeostasis and inhibit its peripheral conversion. Thyroid. 2013 Jul 31.
- Todisco M., Polimeni A., Cronobiologia, depression e obesità, Tecniche Nuove, 1993.
- Thorner M., Ultradian Rhythms and Growth Hormone Regulation, Lezione per il corso estivo in Biological Timing alla University of Virginia,6 Agosto 1992.
- D’Eugenio A., gli ormoni sessuali e la dieta, Adda, 2008.
- Sofer S., Eliraz A., Kaplan S., Voet H., Fink G. Kima T., Madar Z., Greater Weight Loss and Hormonal Charges After 6 motnhs Diet With Carbohydrates Eaten Mostly at Dinner. Obesity, (Silver Spring), 2011 Apr 7, (E-pub, ahead of print)