Health benefits of endurance training alone or combined with diet for obese patients over 60: a review.
The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing in older patients and it is ubiquitous in many developed countries. Obesity is related to various negative health outcomes, making it a major public health target for intervention. The aim of this study was to explore and summarise the literature that addresses endurance training alone or combined with nutrition interventions to combat obesity in obese patients over age 60. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies published between 1995 and 2014 on the relationship between endurance training alone or combined with a diet in obese patients over 60 regarding health outcomes. Twenty-six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting endurance training alone or combined with diet for older obese patients over 60. These studies demonstrated a positive effect of this intervention on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant beneficial effect on the lipid profile. Improvement of body composition and insulin sensitivity, and a reduction in blood pressure were also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of endurance training alone or combined with diet on health outcomes and metabolic benefits in older adults. Clinicians can now use this evidence to formulate actions to encourage the older obese to profit from the health benefits of endurance training and diet. This will not only help reduce the dramatic increase in the number of older obese but also help prevent sarcopenic obesity, which is a complex challenge for healthcare professionals.